Pancasila is the official philosophical foundation of the Indonesian state. Pancasila consists of two Old Javanese words, "pañca" meaning five, and "sīla" meaning principles. It comprises five principles held to be inseparable and interrelated:

I. Belief in the one and only God

The Star
Ketuhanan yang Maha Esa : This principle emphasizes belief in God. It also implies that the Indonesian people believe in life after death. It emphasizes that the pursuit of sacred values will lead the people to a better life in the hereafter. The principle is embodied in the 1945 Constitution and reads: "The state shall be based on the belief in the one and only God". It is represented by the star in the center of the shield of the Garuda Pancasila.

II. Just and civilized humanity

The Chain

Kemanusiaan yang Adil dan Beradab : This principle requires that human beings be treated with due regard to their dignity as God’s creatures. It emphasizes that the Indonesian people do not tolerate physical or spiritual oppression of human beings by their own people or by any other nation. The chain at the lower right of the shield symbolizes successive generations of humanity.

III. The unity of Indonesia

The Banyan

Persatuan Indonesia : This principle embodies the concept of nationalism, of love for one’s nation and motherland. It envisages the need to always foster national unity and integrity. Pancasila nationalism demands that Indonesians avoid feelings of superiority on the grounds of ethnicity, for reasons of ancestry and skin color. In his 1 June 1945 speech, Sukarno quoted Gandhi: I am a nationalist, but my nationalism is humanity. The Indonesian coat of arms enshrines the symbol of "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" which means "unity in diversity". This is represented on the shield by the banyan tree at top right.

IV. Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives

The Buffalo's head.

Kerakyatan yang Dipimpin oleh Hikmat Kebijaksanaan dalam Permusyawaratan/Perwakilan : Pancasila democracy calls for decision-making through deliberations, or musyawarah, to reach a consensus, or mufakat. It implies that voting is not encouraged as long as deliberation is possible. It is democracy that lives up to the principles of Pancasila. The head of the wild bull at top left stands for this sila

V. Social justice for the whole of the people of Indonesia

The Rice and Cotton.

Keadilan Sosial bagi Seluruh Rakyat Indonesia : This principle calls for the equitable spread of welfare to the entire population, not in a static but in a dynamic and progressive way. This means that all of the country’s natural resources and the national potentials should be utilized for the greatest possible good and happiness of the people. Social justice implies protection of the weak. But protection should not deny them work. On the contrary, they should work according to their abilities and fields of activity. Protection should prevent willful treatment by the strong and ensure the rule of justice. This is symbolized by the paddy and cotton ears on the shield

Explanatory Points (Butir-Butir Pancasila)

I. Belief in the one and only God.
  1. To believe and to devote oneself to one God according to his/her own religions and beliefs in the principle of just and civilized humanity (Percaya dan taqwa kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa sesuai dengan agama dan kepercayaannya masing-masing menurut dasar kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab).
  2. To respect and cooperate with people of different religions and belief in order to achieve harmonious living (Hormat dan menghormati serta bekerjasama antara pemeluk agama dan penganut-penganut kepercayaan yang berbeda-beda sehingga terbina kerukunan hidup).
  3. To respect freedom of performing religious duties according his/her own religions and beliefs (Saling menghormati kebebasan menjalankan ibadah sesuai dengan agama dan kepercayaan masing-masing).
  4. To not force religions or beliefs onto others (Tidak memaksakan suatu agama atau kepercayaannya kepada orang lain).

II. Just and civilized humanity.
  1. To conform with equal degree, equal rights, and equal obligations between individuals (Mengakui persamaan derajat, persamaan hak dan persamaan kewajiban antara sesama manusia).
  2. To love human being (Saling mencintai sesama manusia).
  3. To develop tolerant attitude (Mengembangkan sikap tenggang rasa).
  4. Not to be disrespectful to others (Tidak semena-mena terhadap orang lain).
  5. To hold high the values of humanity (Menjunjung tinggi nilai kemanusiaan).
  6. To do humanity works (Gemar melakukan kegiatan kemanusiaan).
  7. To be brave in defending truth and justice (Berani membela kebenaran dan keadilan).
  8. Indonesians should consider themselves as part of International Community, and hence must develop respect and cooperation with other nations (Bangsa Indonesia merasa dirinya sebagai bagian dari masyarakat Dunia Internasional dan dengan itu harus mengembangkan sikap saling hormat-menghormati dan bekerjasama dengan bangsa lain)

III. The unity of Indonesia.
  1. To protect the United Nation of the Republic of Indonesia's unity (Menjaga Persatuan dan Kesatuan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia).
  2. Willing to sacrifice oneself for the sake of the country and nation (Rela berkorban demi bangsa dan negara).
  3. To love the motherland (Cinta akan Tanah Air).
  4. To be proud for being part of Indonesia (Berbangga sebagai bagian dari Indonesia).
  5. To be well-socialised in order to keep the nation's unity in diversity (Memajukan pergaulan demi persatuan dan kesatuan bangsa yang ber-Bhinneka Tunggal Ika).

IV. Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives.
  1. To prioritize on national and community interests (Mengutamakan kepentingan negara dan masyarakat).
  2. Not forcing one's will to other people (Tidak memaksakan kehendak kepada orang lain).
  3. To prioritize on the culture of unanimous agreement in public decision making (Mengutamakan budaya rembug atau musyawarah dalam mengambil keputusan bersama).
  4. To keep the discussion until a consensus or an unanimous consent is reached embodied by the spirit of kinship (Berrembug atau bermusyawarah sampai mencapai konsensus atau kata mufakat diliputi dengan semangat kekeluargaan).

V. Social justice for the whole of the people of Indonesia.
  1. To be just toward fellow people (Bersikap adil terhadap sesama).
  2. To respect other people's rights (Menghormati hak-hak orang lain).
  3. To help one another (Menolong sesama).
  4. To cherish other human being (Menghargai orang lain).
  5. To do useful tasks for common good and for public behalf (Melakukan pekerjaan yang berguna bagi kepentingan umum dan bersama).